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cognition-thought or intellect
cognitive development-Jean Piaget (a cognitive theorist)
-genetic epistemology-systematic study of knowledge
                               -gain. acquire, use
-the human family

**3 stages of cognitive development**
1. sensory motor stage (0-2)-coordination. 5 senses with muscle movement
   a)egocentric-self centered
  b)scheme-thought behavior relationship
  c)object permanence-16-22 weeks-fully developed by the end of the first yea
2.preoperational stage  (2-7 years) language development -you learn written language of culture, the conceptual languages, concepts can only be understood  when they are tied down to other concepts
-language=thoughts=culture
-therefore-language=culture
-thoughts->language
3.concrete operational stage (7-11 years)
-hypothesis thinking-an educated guess
-kids learn by doing
4.formal operational stage (11-15) (17)
-abstraction, analoges and metaphors

*Lev Vygotsky-socio-cultural approach
 -the society and the culture in which we live will be responsible for the language and the thoughts we have
 -language goes through 4 different stages

1)preintellectual speech
2)naiive speech
3)egocentric speech
4)innerspeech-(thinking, talking to yourself within your mind)

-Vygotsky says-language--->thoughts
Thought
Language
Culture

*Benjamin Whorf-lingustic relative hypothesis.
-If a language is related to thoughts and if thought is related to culture than culture is related to language
so, if:language->thought
& if: thought->culture
then: culture->language

-if culture has a need for a word they will deveolp that word
-language-a flexible system of communican using sounds, utterances, gestures, innotation and inflexion to communicate thought

*3 properties to language:
1) semanticity-meaning of a word
2)productivity-meaning of alot of words put together-ex) sentence, paragrah, essay
3)displacement-the abilty to abstract time-past-present-future
  
-all humans have language
-only humans have languge
-all languages maintain those characteristics

*NATURE        vs         NURTURE  DICHOTOMY

Nature-biological predisposition
Nurture-environmental determanism


NATURE:
-genetic predisposition
-neurologically hardwire (set up neurologically to use language)
-Brocas area (Left tempral lobe)-Broca's area, which is usually associated with the production of language, or language outputs
-Wernicks area (Left frontal lobe)-Wernicke's area, which is associated with the processing of words that we hear being spoken, or language inputs
-Noam Chomsky-psycholinguistics,(psychology-language)-language acquistion device (LAD)
-(LAD)-a deeply seeded, neurologically hardwired something that makes us receptive to language and grammer
-innate nativism-inborn

NURTURE:
-emergentism-develops over time
-you must be exposed to human language during a sensitive critical period-12 years
-ferrel children-children who, for one reason or another, have been abandoned by their biological parents in early childhood and raised by not humans

-interdependence of the two theories-"functionalist approach"-Anna Anastasi (1952)
-Anna Anastasi says nature and nurture are equal partners in determing behaviorism

*grammer-rules!
-phonology-the study of sounds (putting sounds together to form words)
-psycholingustics-combination of the study of psych and the study of language
-syntax-they way in which we put words together to form sentences-creates meaning-productivity
-semantivity-meaning of a word
-productivity-meaning of alot of words
-displacement-ability to abstract time
-pragmatics-participation in conversation-responding appropriately

*developmental psychology-the human development across the lifespan from conception to death
-2 parts:
-physical development
-prenatal environment-before birth-neonate newborn-ex)herion addicted babies

*G. Stanley Hall-the father of environmental psych

-attachment theory-John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth
  -primary caregiver-attach to the primary caregiver with proximatey (physical closeness)
 -attachment occurs because of proximatey-(proximatey->attachment)

*HUMANISM-3rd force in psychology
    -1st force-Psychodynamic-the unconsious
    -2nd force-Behaviorism-the environment

-Humanism-abraham maslow
  -self actualization-to fully bring forth or manifest. Being the best human beings we can he and understanding ourselves. To fully development the unquieness of who we are.
-we have free will and we are not bound by the unconcious mind
-we must take responsibly for our actions (good and bad)
-internal locus of control-control over your life
-external locus of control-focus outside of me that controls you
-respect-you respect and you are entitled to respect-all people are innately good. they have innate dignitiy
-authenticity-be who you are
-"Be here now!" Rom Das

-self actualization-most important characteristic of a humanist.

*Mary Ainsworth-strange situation technique-The Strange Situation procedure, developed by American psychologist Mary Ainsworth, is widely used in child development research. The goal of the Strange Situation procedure is to provide an environment that would arouse in the infant both the motivation to explore and the urge to seek security. An observer (often a researcher or therapist) takes a mother and her child (usually around the age of 12 months) to an unfamiliar room containing toys. A series of eight separations and...

-Ainsworth studys attachments:

The strange situation:
1. Securely attached child-when their mother leaves the room & a stranger comes in the child stops playing with the toys and are irritated with the stranger. When the mother returns they seek out their mother
2. Avoidantly attached child-distressed by moms seperation but upon return they don't seek out their mother
3. Ambivalently attached child-distressed at mothers seperation but upon reunion they activley seek out their mother and simeltainously reject her. 
4. disorganized and disoriented child-confused before, during and after the procedure

-imprinting-natural instictual attachment in nonhumans-Konrad Lorenz
-bonding-non instictual in humans-Lorenz

*Hierarchy of Needs-our journey of selfactualization
top layer-self actualization
2nd layer-esteem
3rd layer-belongingness needs
4th layer-safety needs
bottom layer-physiological/basic needs

actualizating tendency^

*Carl Rogers believes actualization tendency is a tendency humans have to push toward self actualization
-all humanists believe in self actualization

-cognitive behaviorism-thougths->behaviors
   -not related to cognitive behaviorism- or behaviorism
  -we have thoughts and these thougths drive our behaviors

*-Albert Ellis-rational-emotive-cognitive-behavior therapy
  -rational thoughts, emotions, behaviors
 -"rational thoughts will drive rational behaviors"
 -rational thoughts---->rational behaviors
 -irrational thoughts--->irrational behaviors
-Ellis is a humanist, cognitive behaviorist and rational emotive-cognitive behaviorist

-motivation-motive-a need, desire or want that directs us toward achieving some goal
-emotion-affect in psych or feeling that directs us to a goal-perceptions-how we see the world
-drive-biological need, desire or want (hunger, thrist, temperature, some sex drive)
-all drives are motives but all motives are not drives
-instinct-genetically predisposed pattern of behavior transmitted from one generation to the next common to all members of a species and responsible for species survival or individual survival
-reflex-pattern of behavior common to all members of a species and it is triggered by the same environmental stimulis

*conflict

1)approach-approach conflict
-------> + <-------

2)avoidance-avoidance conflict
<---- + ------>

3)approach-avoidance conflict
-----> + ----->




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secret_theme
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Time:2008-11-11 10:13 pm (UTC)
psyc101!!!! haha I'm studying for psyc tonight toooo :)
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(Anonymous)
Subject:hi
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Time:2009-01-06 03:35 pm (UTC)
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(Anonymous)
Subject:100 percent acai berry
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Time:2011-04-14 05:06 pm (UTC)
Time is too slow for those who wait, too swift for those who fear, too long for those who grieve, too short for those who rejoice, but for those who love, time is eternity.
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